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Interviewed May 2011

Cristal Montañéz Baylor is a democracy activist from Venezuela who lives and works in Houston, Texas.

From 2003 to 2008 Montañéz Baylor served as president of the International Venezuelan Council for Democracy, an organization dedicated to advancing democratic values and institutions, preserving Venezuela's tradition of free and fair elections, and promoting accountability in government. She also serves as Executive Director of the Hashoo Foundation USA, which works to empower women and girls in the remotest and most isolated areas of Northern Pakistan by expanding employment opportunities, providing access to education, and generating stable sources of income. Ms. Montañéz Baylor, a former model, was Miss Venezuela 1977. 

Definitely other movements of organizations, societies that have strengthened through these political processes, have caught my attention, especially those nonviolent movements, where society is united for the sole purpose of ending a dictatorial regime without violence.

We have observed this is many countries. It has happened in Yugoslavia. In recent months we have seen an extraordinary process in Iran -- Egypt and Libya also can be mentioned -- where we see that the people, despite the risks, have decided to defend democratic principles. And these countries have been mostly successful. Some have not been successful, such as Iran and Ukraine. The processes were lost. But the effort was made, the experience of unity has been seen, which leads us to say ultimately the dictators´ wish will prevail. In Iran they stole the elections from the people. In Venezuela they will steal the 2012 elections from Venezuelans. 

Venezuela is a South American country of 28.5 million people with a history of multiparty constitutional democracy. President Nicolas Maduro took office after Hugo Chavez succumbed to cancer in 2013.

During the 1998-2013 presidency of Colonel Hugo Chavez, a series of constitutional and legal changes were implemented that make it far more difficult for citizens to change their government. The Chavez government systematically used public resources to secure its power, closed down independent news media, and used legal and extralegal means to harass and intimidate its critics.

Soon after his first election, Chavez called for a new constitution that would give expanded powers to the president and replace Venezuela’s bicameral Congress with a unicameral national assembly. The new constitution was approved by referendum in 1999. Chavez acquired substantial control of the military, the judiciary, the electoral commission, and the news media. The government closed Radio Caracas Television Internacional (RCTV Internacional), the country’s largest television network, and forced into exile the president of Globovision, the other major opposition-aligned network.

The Chavez government’s increasingly repressive methods generated strong public opposition, including a series of public protests by students, workers, and others who were not previously aligned with the political opposition. In the 2010 National Assembly elections, opposition parties received the majority of the votes, but under the new electoral rules the government took a substantial majority of the seats in the Assembly.

Venezuela’s vast oil resources allowed Chavez to implement policies that steered the country towards a socialist economy. The country’s oil wealth funded a major expansion of government social programs, much to the approval of government supporters in the lower class. Oil became the foundation of Venezuela’s relationship with Cuba, which has strengthened substantially over the last few decades due to shared ideology and financial and security interdependence. Venezuela has replaced the Soviet Union as Cuba’s major benefactor, financially supporting the Castro regime. Cuba in turn has supported the transformation and strengthening of the Venezuelan military. In 2004, the two nations founded the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), a group of socialist and social democratic nations working toward economic integration. ALBA and its member nations often champion anti-American policies and sentiments. This alliance has led to close ties between Venezuela and nations such as Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Bolivia.

Immediately after Chavez’s passing, Vice President Maduro assumed the role of interim President. He then went on to narrowly defeat an opposition candidate by a 1.5 percent margin in the April 2013 presidential elections. Maduro has pledged to complete Chavez’s socialist transformation of Venezuela.

Recently, Venezuela has struggled with a rising crime and homicide rate, blamed by some on a recent economic downturn, the availability of arms, and the weak judicial system. However, Chavez and Maduro both have linked this increase in crime to the media’s portrayal of both fictional and real violence and have continued to influence what programming and content is available. Both leaders have expanded the security forces within the country, calling on police, militias, and the military to fight crime.

In Freedom House’s Freedom in the World report, Venezuela earned “partly free” status, with an overall rating of 5. A rating of 1 represents the most free and 7 represents the least free.


More on this theme from Cristal Montañéz Baylor

Cristal Montanez Baylor: Nonviolent Movements “In recent months we have seen an extraordinary process . . . where we see that the people, despite the risks, have decided to defend democratic principles.”

Other videos from Cristal Montañéz Baylor

Cristal Montanez Baylor: Preserving Democracy “I would ask people not to watch the process of destruction in your country on television.” More +